Ebola Virus- Ground reports and Immunization Program



Background

A rare and deadly disease Ebola is a virus that not only affected the human but also the nonhuman primates like gorillas, chimpanzees, and monkeys as well as pigs. Ebola is also known by the name hemorrhagic fever virus because it leads to clotting of blood, internal bleeding, and blood leakage from small blood vessels within the body. Above all these it also damages the tissues, organs, wrecks the immune system and causes inflammation. The research found that the six different kinds of species of the virus which leads to this disease are:

  • Ebola virus
  • Taï Forest Virus
  • Bundibugyo Virus
  • Sudan Virus
  • Bombali Virus
  • Reston Virus

Spreading of Ebola Virus

Among these only four of them Sudan, Ebola, Bundibugyo, and Taï Forest viruses affect the human. Nonhuman primates and pigs are affected by the Reston virus. Moreover, the research is still going on to find out whether the Bombali virus which is found in bats affects people or animals. Unlike colds, influenza or measles virus, Ebola is not a contagious or a common virus. This virus spreads through the direct contamination of sweats, blood, tears, saliva, feces, mucus, urine, breast milk and semen of the people who are infected by this virus. It can be also caused by touching the things that are contaminated with this infectious fluid.

Symptoms

It is difficult to identify the Ebola disease from the symptoms because it shows the signs of flu and other illness. By seeing the symptoms the doctors may think that the patient is suffering from Cholera or malaria.  Only through blood and tissue tests, Ebola can be diagnosed. Those people who are suffering from this deadly disease once diagnosed are isolated from the public to prevent others.  After the body gets infected shows up the Ebola symptoms in 2 to 21 days which includes high fever, joint and muscle pain, headache, lack of appetite, weakness, sore throat, and stomach pain. Day by day this disease takes the people towards the worst scenario where internal bleeding, as well as bleeding from eyes, ears, and nose, also starts. Most the people start vomiting blood get rashes and suffer from bloody diarrhea.

Fatality Rate

As per the report of the World Health Organization fatality rate of the Ebola Virus case is somewhat around 50%. The case fatality differs between 25%- 90% since the past outbreaks. This disease was first discovered in the year 1976 in the remote villages that lie in Central Africa that is near the tropical rainforest. From 2014-2016 the largest and complex outbreak of this virus took place in West Africa. This virus affected the between countries from Guinea and then across the land borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia.

In the first eight months of the epidemic that is till March 2019, there were 1000 cases of this virus and between April and June 2019 the report just doubled. In June and early August it is found that every week the number of cases is high, it’s almost around 75 to 100 a week. But, from the mid of August, there is a slow decrease in the number of new cases which is 50 cases per week.

WHO’s Declaration

Officially the WHO declared that the present outbreak of Ebola as the ‘Public Health Emergency of International Concern’ after the spread of the disease in Goma, which is a highly populated city located in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that is near the border with Rwanda. This outbreak of Ebola in Congo has brought huge challenges. This declaration has received criticism from public health experts and legal.

The recent outbreak of the disease is the second largest after the 2014 and 2015 outbreaks in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone in which around 11,000 people died. As per the current Ebola outbreak has affected people around 2,489 and almost 1,665 people died.  In this scenario, WHO has dispatched a team to the country and even released $1 million to stop the spreading of this virus. Instead of the repeated outbreaks, DR Congo has recorded the low fatalities thanks to the public awareness campaigns and highly experienced medicals staff.

Treatment

So far, no treatment or any Ebola vaccine is there and still, the researcher is working on it. Doctors are trying to treat all the symptoms of Ebola through fluids and electrolytes, blood pressure medication, blood transfusion, oxygen and treatment for the infection. The health care workers are ordered to wear masks, gloves, and goggles while treating a person who is affected by the virus. It is best not to travel to those areas where people are affected by Ebola. After looking at the new outbreak of this scary disease the health ministry has decided to make use of an experimental vaccine for Ebola rVSV-ZEBOV- which showed the sign of hope to act against this virus while testing.

Out of 5837 people who have taken the vaccine no Ebola virus has been detected within 10 days or more. Compared to this there were around 23 cases 10 days after the vaccination in which those who didn’t take the vaccine. In collaboration with the other international partners Guinea’s Ministry of Health, Médecins sans Frontieres and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health WHO has led this trial. However, a ring vaccination protocol has been selected for the trial in which some of the rings are vaccinated soon after a case is identified and the others are vaccinated after a delay of 3 weeks.

Final Words

With the outbreak of the Ebola Virus in West Africa there has been a huge expense of billions of dollars. WHO asked for a small fraction of that sum to control the outbreak which can lead to further more loss of lives. World Health Organization along with the Congo’s health ministry seeks the help of the international for the outbreak of Ebola. The measures taken have been proved highly effective. However, new drug therapies can’t stop this infection or upcoming epidemics alone. Dealing with this menace there is a need for the formation of public trust within the working community organization and the government bodies to overcome these issues.